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Immune reconstitution
Penicillium marneffei

Thomas Li & Charles Gomersall


  • 40 million patients worldwide
  • 28.2 million in sub-Saharan Africa


  • sexual practices
  • needlestick injury
    • risk of transmission 1/300
  • vertical transmission
  • blood products
    • unusual with screening programs

Serious life threatening conditions

  • Pulmonary
    • Bacterial
      • Streptococcus pneumoniae

      • Haemophilus influenzae

      • Staphylococcus aureus

      • Klebsiella pneumoniae

      • Pseudomonas aeruginosa

      • Nocardia asteroides

    • Fungal
    • Mycobacterium
      • TB
      • Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (end-stage HIV disease)

    • Parasitic
      • Toxoplasma gondii

      • Strongyloides stercoralis

    • Viral
      • CMV
      • Influenza, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, adenovirus

  • CNS
    • Cryptococcus
    • Toxoplasma
  • Acute bacterial infections


  • ~70% of HIV +ve patients admitted to ICU are dead at 6 months
  • ICU mortality in HIV +ve patients without AIDS similar to HIV -ve patients

©Charles Gomersall, April, 2014 unless otherwise stated. The author, editor and The Chinese University of Hong Kong take no responsibility for any adverse event resulting from the use of this webpage.
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